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钢筋混凝土的由来!

添加时间:2019-02-15      发布人:

房子由茅草木屋、土房,砖房。发展到了现在的钢筋混凝土楼房。
  The house is made up of thatched hut, earthen house and brick house. It has developed to the present reinforced concrete buildings.
  我们先不探究房子的发展史,先来看一下钢筋混凝土的由来。
  Let's not go into the history of the house, but first look at the origin of reinforced concrete.
  钢筋混凝土的发展史
  Development History of Reinforced Concrete
  1868年一个法国园丁莫尼埃, 获得了包括钢筋混凝土花盆,以及紧随其后应用于公路护栏的钢筋混凝土梁柱的专利
  In 1868, a French gardener, Monier, obtained patents for reinforced concrete flowerpots and subsequently reinforced concrete beams and columns used in highway guardrails.
  1872年,世界第一座钢筋混凝土结构的建筑在美国纽约落成,人类建筑史上一个崭新的纪元从此开始
  In 1872, the world's first reinforced concrete structure was built in New York, USA, and a new era in the history of human architecture began.
  1900年之后钢筋混凝土结构在工程界方得到了大规模的使用
  Since 1900, reinforced concrete structures have been widely used in engineering circles.
  1928年,一种新型钢筋混凝土结构形式预应力钢筋混凝土出现,并于二次世界大战后亦被广泛地应用于工程实践
  In 1928, a new type of reinforced concrete structure, prestressing reinforced concrete, appeared and was widely used in engineering practice after World War II.
  故事:一位法国名叫的园艺师。莫尼埃有个很大的花园,一年四季开着美丽的鲜花,但是花坛经常被游客踏碎。为此,莫尼埃常想:“有什么办法可使人们既能踏上花坛,又不容易踩碎呢?”有一天,莫尼埃移栽花时,不小心打碎了一盆花,花盆摔成了碎片,花根四周的土却仅仅包成一团。“噢!花木的根系纵横交错,把松软的泥土牢牢地连在了一起!”他从这件事上得到启发,将铁丝仿照花木根系编成网状,然后和水泥、砂石一起搅拌,做成花坛,果然十分牢固。
  Story: A French horticulturist by name. Monier has a big garden with beautiful flowers all year round, but flower beds are often broken by tourists. For this reason, Monier often thought, "What can we do to make people not only step on the flower bed, but also crush it easily?" One day, when Monier was transplanting flowers, he accidentally broke a pot of flowers. The pot broke into pieces, but the soil around the roots was just a bunch. "Oh! The roots of the flowers and trees are crisscrossed, and the soft soil is firmly linked together! Inspired by this, he weaved the wire into a net like the roots of flowers and trees, and then stirred it with cement and sand to make a flower bed, which was very solid indeed.
济南钢筋批发
  钢筋混凝土结构应用在建筑工程中。1849年,法国人J.L.朗姆波和1867年法国人J.莫尼埃先后在铁丝网两面涂抹水泥砂浆制作小船和花盆。1884年德国建筑公司购买了莫尼埃的专利,进行了第一批钢筋混凝土的科学实验,研究了钢筋混凝土的强度、耐火性能,钢筋与混凝土的粘结力。1886年德国工程师M.克嫩提出钢筋混凝土板的计算方法。与此同时,英国人W.D.威尔金森提出了钢筋混凝土楼板专利;美国人T.海厄特对混凝土梁进行试验;法国人F.克瓦涅出版了一本应用钢筋混凝土的专著。
  Reinforced concrete structures are used in construction projects. In 1849, French J. L. Lambo and French J. Monier in 1867 successively applied cement mortar on both sides of the wire mesh to make boats and flower pots. In 1884, the German Construction Company purchased Monier's patents and carried out the first batch of scientific experiments on reinforced concrete. The strength, fire resistance and bond strength between reinforced concrete and concrete were studied. In 1886, German Engineer M. Kernen put forward the calculation method of reinforced concrete slabs. Meanwhile, British W.D. Wilkinson proposed a patent for reinforced concrete floor slabs; American T. Hayte tested concrete beams; French F. Kwane published a monograph on the application of reinforced concrete.
  在钢筋混凝土出现的早期,大多采用以弹性理论为基础的容许应力设计法。在本世纪30年代后期,苏联开始采用考虑钢筋混凝土破坏阶段塑性的破坏强度设计法;1950年,更进一步完善为极限状态设计法,它综合了前面两种设计方法的优点,既验算使用阶段的容许应力、容许裂缝宽度和挠度,也验算破坏阶段的承载能力,概念比较明确,考虑比较全面,已为许多国家和国际组织的设计规范所采用。
  In the early stage of the emergence of reinforced concrete, the allowable stress design method based on the elastic theory was mostly adopted. In the late 1930s, the Soviet Union began to adopt the failure strength design method considering the plasticity of reinforced concrete failure stage; in 1950, it was further improved to the limit state design method, which combines the advantages of the former two design methods. It not only checks the allowable stress, allowable crack width and deflection in the use stage, but also checks the bearing capacity in the failure stage. It has been adopted by many countries and international organizations.
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